Part XIX- Episode 2- Necessity- The Advent of Myocardial Protection- Standing on Tall Shoulders- The History of Cardiac Surgery Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“Nothing has more strength…than dire necessity”- Euripides “Discontent is the first necessity of progress”- Thomas A Edison Prologue- The synergism incorporating hypothermia with cardiac surgery has been described by many investigators as the single most important advance for protecting the… Read More

Part XVIII- Episode 1 – Buying Time- The Advent of Myocardial Protection – Standing on Tall Shoulders- The History of Cardiac Surgery Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

To give pleasure to a single heart by a single act is better than a thousand heads bowing in prayer” -Mahatma Gandhi Prologue- I have received several requests for a more comprehensive backstory on myocardial protection. From my earliest days… Read More

Part XVII Norman E. Shumway- The Dawn of a New Era- Standing on Tall Shoulders- The History of Cardiac Surgery Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“A man is but the product of his thoughts. What he thinks, he becomes.” Mahatma Gandhi- All Men are Brothers From Chrysalis Emerge – In 1960, with the new buildings completed, Stanford University Medical Center blossomed in Palo Alto, CA. The… Read More

Part XVI- Norman E. Shumway And The Fruit of Curious Minds- Standing on Tall Shoulders- The History of Cardiac Surgery Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP With An Ending Note By Mary Ann Overton CCP

“Success has many Fathers…but failure is an orphan” Italian Proverb and favorite quote of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Einstein’s thought experiment- “What if?” The day quickly approached when the first cardiac procedures were to commence at Children’s Hospital San Francisco. All… Read More

Part XV- Norman E. Shumway- Standing on Tall Shoulders-The History of Cardiac Surgery By Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP With An Ending Note By Mary Ann Overton CCP

“A kind gesture can reach a wound that only compassion can heal”- Steve Maraboli Author’s note:Through a series of totally unrelated events over the last several weeks I have witnessed several very close friends, in the words of the Nez… Read More

Part XIV- Dr. Leonard Bailey & Baby Fae – Standing on Tall Shoulders The History of Cardiac Surgery Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

Because I could not stop for Death…He kindly stopped for me… The carriage held but just ourselves…And immortality Emily Dickinson 28 July- 12 August 1984- The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, were being… Read More

Part XIII- Dr. Leonard Bailey & Cross-species Transplantation – Standing On Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts” – Winston Churchill In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, the serendipitous revelation that Leonard Bailey and his team of researchers could resolve their immunosuppression… Read More

Part XII- Cross-species Organ Transplantation – Standing On Tall Shoulders The History of Cardiac Surgery Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“Medicine is magical and magical is art- Thinking of The Boy in The Bubble- And the Baby with the Baboon Heart”- “The Boy in the Bubble”- Graceland- Paul Simon-1986 Late in the evening of 23 January 1964, in an operating… Read More

Part XI – Dr. René Geronimo Favaloro & CABG – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“I am a slow walker…but I never walk back” – Abraham Lincoln During the 1960’s, the United States was experiencing an explosive transformation. Post World War II had provided, for the very first time in history, a true middle class. The… Read More

Part X – Dr. James D. Hardy MD – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery 10 by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“Man is a clever animal who behaves like an imbecile” – Albert Schweitzer 1960’s – The age of organ transplantation There is an age old expression, attributed to New York Senator William L. Marcy in 1828: “To the victor belongs… Read More

Past IX – Valves And Veins – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower” – Steve Jobs 1960-1970- The advent of prosthetic heart valves and coronary artery bypass surgery With the general acceptance and practical utility provided by extracorporeal circulation, innovation in cardiac surgery blossomed, analogous… Read More

Part VIII – Richard Jensen (1938-2009) – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery

FROM COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA TO HUTCHINSON, MINNESOTA—MAPLEWOOD ACADEMY TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Early one day, I walked over to the University of Minnesota to sign up for pre-med. While waiting, I picked up the school newspaper and saw an… Read More

Part VII – Dr. Richard DeWall and Bubbles – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“I say there is no darkness…but ignorance.” –William Shakespeare Walt Lillehei’s research lab in the basement of University of Minnesota felt like Penn. Station with the superfluity of activity. Richard DeWall had become fully engrossed in attempting to create a… Read More

Past VI – Dr. Walton Lillehei’s Second Plan – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“The Pendulum of the Mind Oscillates between Sense and Nonsense- Not between Right or Wrong” Carl Gustav Jung Walton Lellehei had become exceedingly cognizant of the general mood displayed by physicians and researchers proclaiming “we have progressed as far as we… Read More

Part V – Drs. Gibbon and Lellehei – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“What mankind can dream-research and technology can achieve” Walton Lillehei Dr. John Gibbon had completed his full 4 year term of active duty service during World War II and now he was able to return to Mary and their animal… Read More

Part IV – Closing Atrial “Loop Holes” – Standing on Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“A successful surgeon should be a man who, when asked to name the three best surgeons in the world, would have difficulty deciding on the other two”    -Denton Cooley 1952-1954:  The Dawn of Open Heart Surgery True open heart surgery… Read More

Part III – Blalock, Taussig and Vivian Thomas – Standing On Tall Shoulders The History of Cardiac Surgery – by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

“Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers”- Alfred Blalock, 1944 Synergy- “The interaction of elements that, when combined, produce a total effect that is greater than the sum of the individual elements”. There are times throughout history that we can bear witness to… Read More

Part II – Truly Remarkable Decades – Standing on Tall Shoulders The History of Cardiac Surgery – by Thomas N Muziani PA-C, CP

 “I want to know God’s thoughts…all the rest are details.” Albert Einstein 1907 A small issue of extreme importance must be kept in context with regard to the invasive nature of cardiac surgery during the period of 1907 and before…. Read More

Part I – A Remarkably Young Story – Standing On Tall Shoulders – The History of Cardiac Surgery by Thomas N. Muziani PA-C, CP

  “The more extensive a man’s knowledge, of what has been done, the greater will be his power of knowing what to do.” Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Great Britain   “Those who cannot remember the… Read More

The Northridge Earthquake 1994: A Tale Of Two Perfusionists

The recent earthquakes in Japan (April 15, 2016, 7.0 magnitude) and Ecuador (April 16, 2016, 7.8 magnitude) brought back the grim reminder of how fragile life is. From the death toll to the devastation of property, you may think you… Read More

The Evolution of Cardiac ECMO at One Hospital by Gary Grist RN CCP Retired- August 2012

  Open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) began in 1953. It was used to repair congenital heart defects, mostly in children, because patients with congenital heart disease rarely lived into adulthood. In the 1960’s that changed when coronary artery… Read More

Neonatal ECMO: My First Experience by Gary Grist RN CCP Retired

The first time I heard the word ‘ECMO’ was in 1985.  Dr. Ron Howard MD, one of the pediatric surgeons, mentioned that he would like to have an ECMO program to support his congenital diaphragmatic hernia patients who frequently died… Read More

“The First Perfusionist I Ever Met” By Gary Grist RN CCP Retired

The first perfusionist I ever met was a guy named Jerry Swett. In 1968 when I was 19 years old and after a year of being a hospital orderly (and going to college classes around my work schedule), I started… Read More

Perfusion Theory is an educational platform for the Oxygen Pressure Field Theory (OPFT). August Krogh’s theoretical concept of the oxygen pressure field is explained and then applied to clinical applications in perfusion practice.

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