A common entry way for gaseous emboli is from the venous return line. This picture shows a large air bubble within the venous line as blood is draining into the venous reservoir. Gas bubbles in the venous blood will be primarily room air in composition; meaning about 79% nitrogen and about 21% oxygen. Flooding the operative field with carbon dioxide may help to reduce the nitrogen composition of the entrained bubbles.
Perfusion Theory is an educational platform for the Oxygen Pressure Field Theory (OPFT). August Krogh’s theoretical concept of the oxygen pressure field is explained and then applied to clinical applications in perfusion practice.